Investing in the Future: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Mentorship Networks for Residents
Background: Formal mentorship plays a key career development role in medicine. Traditional mentorship consists of dyadic relationships between mentors and their mentees. However, research favours utilization of mentorship networks involving individuals at multiple levels.
Objective: This study aimed to rigorously evaluate a formalized mentorship network program within a Canadian Internal Medicine residency program from 2012 to 2013.
Methods: Residents participated in one-on-one semi-structured interviews at baseline and after one year of participation in the mentorship network. Closed-ended surveys assessed affective organizational commitment, self-efficacy, career satisfaction and overall wellness among residents and faculty members. 89 residents and 28 faculty members were invited to participate; 40 residents and 18 faculty members completed the survey after one year.
Results: Residents perceived mentorship networks to add value across multiple domains, including self-awareness, overall efficiency, and physician wellness. Satisfaction with the program was very high, with 98% (n = 39/40) of residents and 89% of faculty members (n = 16/18) wanting the program to continue after year one. Male mentors were more likely to report benefits from serving as a mentor than their female counterparts. In contrast to this, female mentees found mentorship more useful than male mentees.Conclusions: Network mentorship is associated with personal and system benefits, though these benefits are difficult to quantify. The network model is feasible and well-received by mentors and mentees. Further research considering both short- and long-term endpoints is required to delineate the true cost-benefit ratio of mentorship programs to both mentors and mentees.
Sambunjak D, Straus SE, Marusic A. Mentoring in academic medicine: A systematic review. JAMA. 2006;296(9):1103-1115.
Ramanan RA, Taylor WC, Davis RB, Phillips RS. Mentoring matters. mentoring and career preparation in internal medicine residency training. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21(4):340-345.
Stamm M, Buddeberg-Fischer B. The impact of mentoring during postgraduate training on doctors' career success. Med Educ. 2011;45(5):488-496.
Frei E, Stamm M, Buddeberg-Fischer B. Mentoring programs for medical students--a review of the PubMed literature 2000-2008. BMC Med Educ. 2010;10:32-6920-10-32.
DeCastro R, Sambuco D, Ubel PA, Stewart A, Jagsi R. Mentor networks in academic medicine: Moving beyond a dyadic conception of mentoring for junior faculty researchers. Acad Med. 2013;88(4):488-496.
Steven A, Oxley J, Fleming WG. Mentoring for NHS doctors: Perceived benefits across the personal-professional interface. J R Soc Med. 2008;101(11):552-557.
Taherian K, Shekarchian M. Mentoring for doctors. do its benefits outweigh its disadvantages? Med Teach. 2008;30(4):e95-9.
Allen TD, O'Brien KE. Formal mentoring programs and organizational attraction. Human Resource Development Quarterly. 2006;17(1):43-58.
Wilson JA, Elman NS. Organizational benefits of mentoring. The Executive. 1990;4(4):88.
Ehrich LC, Hansford B, Tennent L. Formal mentoring programs in education and other professions: A review of the literature. Educational Administration Quarterly. 2004;40(4):518-540.
Straus SE, Chatur F, Taylor M. Issues in the mentor-mentee relationship in academic medicine: A qualitative study. Acad Med. 2009;84(1):135-139.
Higgins MC, Kram KE. Reconceptualizing mentoring at work: A developmental network perspective. Academy of Management.The Academy of Management Review. 2001;26(2):264-288.
Levine RB, Mechaber HF, Reddy ST, Cayea D, Harrison RA. "A good career choice for women": Female medical students' mentoring experiences: A multi-institutional qualitative study. Acad Med. 2013;88(4):527-534.
Dewa CS, Loong D, Bonato S, Thanh NX, Jacobs P. How does burnout affect physician productivity? A systematic literature review. BMC health services research. 2014;14(1):1.
Dyrbye LN, West CP, Satele D, et al. Burnout among U.S. medical students, residents, and early career physicians relative to the general U.S. population. Acad Med. 2014;89(3):443-451.
Shanafelt TD, Mungo M, Schmitgen J, et al. Longitudinal study evaluating the association between physician burnout and changes in professional work effort. . 2016;91(4):422-431.
Lounsbury JW, Park S, Sundstrom E, Williamson JM, Pemberton AE. Personality, career satisfaction, and life satisfaction: Test of a directional model. Journal of Career Assessment. 2004;12(4):395-406.
Meyer JP, Allen NJ, Smith CA. Commitment to organizations and occupations: Extension and test of a three-component conceptualization. J Appl Psychol. 1993;78(4):538-551.
Scholz U, Dona BG, Sud S, Schwarzer R. Is general self-efficacy a universal construct? *: Psychometric findings from 25 countries. European Journal of Psychological Assessment. 2002(Special Section on Program Evaluation 18(3)):242-251.
Meyer JP, Allen NJ. A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human resource management review. 1991;1(1):61-89.
Haji F, Morin M, Parker K. Rethinking programme evaluation in health professions education: Beyond ‘did it work?’. Med Educ. 2013;47(4):342-351.
Schloss EP, Flanagan DM, Culler CL, Wright AL. Some hidden costs of faculty turnover in clinical departments in one academic medical center. Acad Med. 2009;84(1):32-36.
Waldman JD, Kelly F, Arora S, Smith HL. The shocking cost of turnover in health care. Health Care Manage Rev. 2004;29(1):2-7.
O'Brien KE, Biga A, Kessler SR, Allen TD. A meta-analytic investigation of gender differences in mentoring. Journal of Management. 2010;36(2):537-554.
Ragins BR. Barriers to mentoring: The female manager's dilemma. Human relations. 1989;42(1):1-22.
Ragins BR, Cotton JL. Easier said than done: Gender differences in perceived barriers to gaining a mentor. Academy of Management Journal. 1991;34(4):939-951.
Ragins BR, Cotton JL. Gender and willingness to mentor in organizations. Journal of Management. 1993;19(1):97-111.
Ragins BR, Scandura TA. Burden or blessing? expected costs and beneﬁts of being a mentor. J Organ Behav. 1999;20(4):493-509.
Strong EA, De Castro R, Sambuco D, et al. Work–Life balance in academic medicine: Narratives of physician-researchers and their mentors. Journal of general internal medicine. 2013;28(12):1596-1603.
Molina JA, Gimenez-Nadal JI, Cuesta JA, Gracia-Lazaro C, Moreno Y, Sanchez A. Gender differences in cooperation: Experimental evidence on high school students. PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e83700.
Stump GS, Hilpert JC, Husman J, Chung W, Kim W. Collaborative learning in engineering students: Gender and achievement. J Eng Educ. 2011;100(3):475-497.
Philbin M, Meier E, Huffman S, Boverie P. A survey of gender and learning styles. Sex Roles. 1995;32(7-8):485-494.
Yarbrough DB, Shulha LM, Hopson RK, Caruthers FA. The program evaluation standards: A guide for evaluators and evaluation users. Sage Publications; 2010.