COVID-19: A Comprehensive Overview

Main Article Content

Hira Amir
Ally Prebtani

COVID-19, pandemic

Abstract

Coronaviruses are important pathogens reported in humans and animals. A novel coronavirus, formally known as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was identified as a cause of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, in late 2019. Since its outbreak in China, it has disproportionately affected many countries. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was officially declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020 and remains a global concern. A spectrum of disease severity has been reported with a variable course of illness from mild upper respiratory symptoms, pneumonia to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), shock, multiorgan dysfunction and death. The worldwide dissemination of the virus justifies the global efforts in identifying potential treatment strategies and a vaccine for improved clinical and long-term outcomes. This article will reflect on human viral replication and transmission, variable clinical presentation, assessment, treatment and discussion of complications. Isolation precautions according to infection prevention and control including protective apparel will be discussed with emphasis on criteria for discontinuation of transmission precaution.


Resume


Les coronavirus sont des agents pathogènes importants signalés chez les humains et les animaux. Un nouveau coronavirus, officiellement connu sous le nom de coronavirus 2 du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère (SRAS-CoV-2), a été identifié comme une cause de cas de pneumonie à Wuhan, en Chine, à la fin de 2019. Depuis son apparition en Chine, il a touché de nombreux pays de manière disproportionnée. La maladie à coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) a été officiellement déclarée pandémie le 11 mars 2020 et reste une préoccupation mondiale. Un éventail de gravité de la maladie a été signalé, avec une évolution variable de la maladie allant de symptômes respiratoires supérieurs légers, de la pneumonie au syndrome de détresse respiratoire aiguë (SDRA), au choc, au dysfonctionnement de plusieurs organes et à la mort. La diffusion mondiale du virus justifie les efforts mondiaux visant à identifier des stratégies de traitement potentielles et un vaccin pour améliorer les résultats cliniques et à long terme. Cet article se penchera sur la réplication et la transmission du virus chez l'homme, la présentation clinique variable, l'évaluation, le traitement et la discussion des complications. Les précautions d'isolement en fonction de la prévention et du contrôle de l'infection, y compris les vêtements de protection, seront examinées en mettant l'accent sur les critères d'interruption de la précaution de transmission.


 


 

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